Organizational servers provide a variety of services to internal and external users, and many servers also store or process sensitive organizational information. Some of the most common types of servers are the Web, email, website, infrastructure management, and file servers. This publication discusses common security issues of standard servers.
Servers are often targeted by attackers because of the amount of data and their services. For example, the server may contain potentially identifiable information that can be used to commit identity theft. The following are examples of common security threats on servers:
- malicious companies may use software interruptions on the server or its root operating system to gain unauthorized access to the server.
- Denial of service (DoS) attacks may be directed at a server or its network infrastructure that supports, ban or restrict authorized users from using its services.
- Sensitive information on the server may be read by unauthorized persons or modified in an unauthorized manner.
- Concerned sensitive data transmitted or encrypted weakly between server and client may be withheld.
- malicious businesses may gain unauthorized access to resources elsewhere on the organization’s network through a successful server attack.
- malicious businesses may attack other businesses after endangering the server. These attacks can be triggered directly (e.g., from a host hosted against an external server) or indirectly (e.g., placing malicious content on a corrupt server trying to exploit the vulnerability of users’ users accessing the server).
The following key guidelines are recommended for government departments and agencies to maintain a secure server:
Organizations should carefully plan and address the security aspects of the deployment of a server.
Because it is very difficult to deal with security once deployment and implementation has taken place, security should be carefully considered from the first stage of planning. Organizations can make decisions about how to configure computers and how to build and maintain a well-designed, well-designed supply system. Creating such a system will support server administrators in making inevitable trade decisions between usability, usability, and risk.
Organizations often fail to consider human resource needs in both the feed and operational categories of server and support infrastructure. Organizations should address the following issues in the distribution system:
- Types of personnel required (eg, system and server administrators, network administrators, security system information officers [ISSO])
- Skills and training required by assigned staff
- Individual requirements (i.e., level of effort required for specific types of staff) and requirements of collective staff (i.e., total level of effort).
Organizations should implement appropriate security management practices and controls when maintaining and operating a secure server.
Proper management practices are essential to running and maintaining a secure server. Security procedures include the identification of corporate information system assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that help ensure confidentiality, integrity, and access to information system resources. To ensure the security of the server and the supporting network infrastructure, the following procedures should be used:
- A comprehensive information system security policy
- Control / change control and management
- Risk assessment and management
- A standard software configuration that satisfies the security system security policy
- Safety awareness and training
- Emergency planning, operational continuity, and disaster recovery planning
- Certificate and authorization.
Organizations should ensure that the server operating system is deployed, configured, and managed to meet the security requirements of the organization.
The first step to server protection is to protect the underlying operating system. Commonly found servers run with the normal purpose application. Many security problems can be avoided if operating systems under servers are properly configured. Automatic software and software configurations are often set by manufacturers to emphasize features, functions, and ease of use, at a cost of protection. Because manufacturers do not know the security requirements of each organization, each server administrator must configure new servers to reflect their organization’s security needs and adjust them as those needs change. Using security configurations or checklists can help administrators protect secure servers consistently and effectively. Protecting the operating system from scratch will usually involve the following steps:
- Peach and upgrade the operating system
- Delete or disable unnecessary services, applications, and network protocols
- Edit user system authentication
- Configure app controls
- Install and configure additional security controls, if required ¬
- Perform operating system security tests.
Organizations should ensure that the server application is deployed, configured, and managed to meet the security requirements of the organization.
In many ways, secure installation and configuration of the server application will simulate the operating system process mentioned above. The main goal is to include the minimum number of services required and to eliminate any known risks with patches or upgrades. If the installation program includes any unnecessary applications, services, or documents, they should be removed immediately after the installation process is complete. Protecting a server application will usually involve the following steps:
- Pay and upgrade server application
- Delete or disable unnecessary resources, applications, and sample content
- Adjust server authentication and access controls
- Adjust server service controls
- Check the server application security (and server content, if applicable).
Many servers also use authentication and encryption technology to limit who can access a server and protect information transmitted between a server and its customers. Organizations should periodically check resources and information accessible to the server and obtain the necessary security requirements. Organizations should also be prepared to migrate their servers to robust cryptographic technologies as weaknesses appear in existing cryptographic technologies. For example, NIST recommended that the use of Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) be phased out in 2010 in favor of SHA-224, SHA-256, and other larger, more robust functions. Organizations should always be aware of cryptographic requirements and plan to update their servers accordingly.
Organizations should commit to the ongoing process of maintaining the security of servers to ensure continued security.
Keeping a secure server requires ongoing effort, resources, and monitoring from the organization. Daily secure server management is an important aspect of server security. Maintaining server security will usually involve the following actions:
- Preparing, protecting, and analysing log files continuously and consistently
- Making a backup copy of important information on a regular basis
- Develop and follow procedures for recovery in consensus
- To check and use tracts on time
- Private safety check.
Server Security Principles
When faced with server security issues, it is a good idea to keep in mind the following common security protections:
- Simplicity — Security methods (and information systems in general) should be as simple as possible. Complexity is the root of many security problems.
- Fail-Safe — In the event of a failure, the system should fail in a secure manner, i.e., security controls and settings remain active and in use. It is often better to lose work than to be safe.
- Fully Mediation — Instead of providing direct access to information, mediators who enforce access policy should be used. Typical examples of mediators include file system permissions, proxies, firewalls, and mail gates.
- Open Design — System security should not depend on the secrecy of its use or components.
- Classification of Rights — Tasks, to the extent possible, should be as diverse and provide as much bugs as possible. The concept can work on both systems and operators and users. In the case of programs, tasks such as reading, editing, writing, and signing should be different. In the case of system operators and users, roles should be as different as possible. For example, if resources allow, the role of the system administrator should be different from that of the site administrator.
- Limited Rights – This policy stipulates that each employee, process, or user is given the minimum rights required to perform his or her duties. By applying this principle consistently, if an activity, process, or user is at risk, the extent of the damage is limited to the limited resources available to the vulnerable business.
The purpose of system security is to improve the security of system information resources. Systems that effectively protect information assets require managers and owners of information — directly affected and interested in information and / or processing skills — to ensure that their information assets are adequately protected from loss, misuse, unauthorized access or repair, unavailability and anonymity. jobs.
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